The causes and effects of the arab springs by matthew. This paper attempts to examine the causes of the arab uprisings in middle eastern. Protests, riots and demonstrations erupted in algeria, bahrain, iraq, jordan, kuwait, morocco, djibouti, mauritania, oman, saudi arabia, palestine, and western sahara. The endgame is a series of films exploring the fall of the gaddafi regime from the perspective of those who helped to bring it down al jazeera tv the long road to tripoli. Dr ali kadri, the former head of the economic analysis section of the united nations regional office in beirut points out that between 1971 to 2000 overall economic growth in the arab world was negative, with the real gdp per capita of gulf countries contracting by 2,8%.
Also in the case of the arab spring, scholars and analysts have attributed a primary role to these economic causes lagi et al. The literature regarding the economic cost of conflicts originated with the work of organski and kugler 1977, who examined the impact of world wars i and ii on european economies. Associate mechanical engineer tennessee eastman eastman chemical company eastman. The movement began in tunisia in 2010, and thereafter it soon spread to other countries in north africa and the middle east. Causes of the arab spring the wave of social protests that swept through the arab world during 2011, toppling some longstanding regimes and seriously destabilizing others, was the consequence of decades of oppressive and authoritarian political systems, failed economic policies, and socially alienated and disaffected populations, mainly youths.
Analysis of the arab spring 3 blunders in state response, in particular using a heavyhanded approach and trying to crush opposition, had the reverse effect of galvanising more people to join the protests icg, 2011b and 2011d. By 2010 almost 25 % of those with higher education were unemployed, compared to 6 % of those will little education. What are the main points of consensus in the analysis of the arab spring about the factors that led to it and what tipped the balance into widespread protestunrest. Arab spring students britannica kids homework help. The arab spring has altered the status quo in the region, creating implications for the relationships the united states has historically held within the mena region. Existing internal structural tension economic divisions class tensions. One year after the events, the looking back should be enough to draw lessons and debate about.
Browse the independent s complete collection of articles and commentary on arab spring. The increased mortality rates seen in syria, yemen, libya, tunisia and egypt since 2010 particularly threaten to jeopardise health gains made over the past two decades in the middle east. The trigger event which caused the civil war in syria was when s of people took the street in january 2011 to demand political reforms e. In tunisia, protests which began primary over economic frustration, injustice and. What have been the main economic consequences of the arab spring. The arab spring is a fairly recent occurrence, and is largely unfinished. Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by. Roots and causes of the arab uprisings there is a consensu s among politica l analysts regardin g the cocktai l of major factors that, when combined, created the socia l explosio n known as the 2011 arab uprisings.
It also highlights the events of the civil uprisings which led to the removal of some rulers. This disease is characterized by new onset hypertension usually in the third trimester of pregnancy and is sometimes associated with proteinuria, although proteinuria is not a requirement for the. Development of conflict in arab spring libya and syria. Immediate cause course of the war results of the war world war i alliance system system of alliances the alliance system was started by bismarck, the german chancellor from 1871 to 1890. The arab spring may have awakened the entire middle east with a taste of democracy in a few countries, but syria has seen the adverse effects of it. Within this context, students will then learn about the arab spring through a powerpoint centered discussion, political cartoons, and a series of news articles. The reasons and economic and political consequences of. The global crisis has, probably, exacerbated the populations discontent. To make matters worse, the economic situation, which has worsened in recent years because of illadvised decisions, is stoking fears of popular uprisings and widespread disturbances. In tunisia in 2001 those with higher education college and those with no to little education faced an 11 % unemployment rate. The armed forces played a decisive role in many of the arab uprisings, particularly the early ones. Causes and consequences of the prague spring by alastair m. Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by their countries security forces. In tunisia, protests which began primary over economic frustration, injustice and indignity grew to anger at corruption in ruling families and elites.
The causes of the arab spring, or as some call it, arab awakening, were many and longgathering. Arab spring, wave of prodemocracy protests and uprisings that took place in the middle east and north africa beginning in 2010, challenging some of the regions entrenched authoritarian regimes. The impact of the arab spring concerns protests or by the way attempts to organize growing protest movements that were inspired by or similar to the arab spring in the arab majority states of north africa and the middle east, according to commentators, organisers, and critics. Public opinion is volatile in the case of egypt for instance, there was unified opposition against mubarak, but once he was gone, people factionalized quickly. The arab spring caused the biggest transformation of the middle east since decolonization. Ever since the 1950s the arab world has been dominated by strongmen e. Tell whether the underlined words are a cause or effect.
Causes and consequences of the oil shock of 200708 abstract this paper explores similarities and differences between the. Jan 01, 2012 demonstrators rejoice upon hearing that president hosni mubarak had resigned after 18 days of protests against his government, ending 30 years of autocratic rule, in cairo, feb. Economic pressures and taxation international war colonial intrusion globalization today. The economic consequences of the arab spring by mohsin khan atlantic council rafik hariri center for the middle east the popular uprisings that swept the middle east in early 2011 dramatically altered the political landscape of the region with the overthrow of autocratic regimes in egypt, libya, tunisia, and yemen. Barack obama, the arab spring and a series of unforeseen. Beyond the arab spring 2 restricted competition models1 where winning is a means, political parties generally seek to win elections and assume executive power. The arab spring and its unintended effects in syria. Thesis statementthe cause of the civil war is not simply one component, but a multitude of historical moments that have led up to the modern and current ones we see today all combined together creating a deterioration of stability in syria i. The year was 2011 and the days were revolutionarythe arab spring in full force. Cause and effect analyses enable problem solvers to broaden their minds, and to look at the bigger picture with regards to the problem. Egypt is the biggest arab state and it is the first state that signed a peace accord with israel. Barack obama, the arab spring and a series of unforeseen events this article is more than 7 years old after promising muslims a new beginning in.
Polyvocal, leaderless and using new styles of communication, the postarab spring voices do not seek power but seek to defy the state and push it to address the hitherto taboo topics such as. Ed ou the new york times nine months into the arab spring, we surveyed public opinion in seven arab countries and iran, asking over 6,000 respondents about their primary political concerns. An unprotected spring polluted although essential to the aquatic habitat, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus may also cause overfertilization and accelerate the natural aging process eutrophication of lakes. Unrest due to the gap between rising expectations and outcomes.
Jul, 2017 the winds of war blowing between saudi arabia and qatar, as well as iranian subversion, are destabilizing the persian gulf principalities. What has added to syrias uncertainty is the political future that lies ahead, the risk of postvictory payback by assad or any victorious party. Causes and impact of the arab spring in tunisia by. Causes and consequences of the prague spring 1968 thank you for listening. Consequences of arab spring consequences of the socalled arab spring on eus security, and notably on southern europe, constitutes an important matter of concern. The causes and effects of the arab springs by 12ael no single cause was behind the arab spring. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab. Egyptian military is not only in charge of the defence of the country but also. Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in tunisia noueihed, 2011. For instance, one of the main causes of desertification is unsustainable agricultural practices. The bloodiest upshot of the arab spring has been the incessant war in syria.
Determine the cause of each sentence and underline it in blue. In this paper, we attempt to disentangle the causes and consequences of the arab uprisings. Its origins, evolution and consequences four years on article pdf available june 2015 with 23,457 reads how we measure reads. That increases costs to farmers but provides a benefit to fertilizer companies. From revolution to civil war 78 zones and does not tightly define civil war versus other intrastate conflict. Causes and effects of the prague spring bbc bitesize. This resulted in a rather stunted and closed atmosphere. Roots and causes of the arab uprisings there is a consensu s among politica l analysts regardin g the cocktai l of major factors that, when combined, created the. Spring 2009 20 40 60 80 100 120 constant dollars per barrel. We al jazeera tv follow a group of libyan exiles as they sacrifice everything to return home for the final assault on tripoli.
Soybeans, corn, rice, and cotton are planted in the mississippi river area in the spring when flooding occurs. Romania had also broken free of russian control, and was improving relations. Causes and effects of the prague spring causes of the prague spring. Syria is subject to sunnialawite conflict but the arab spring has aggravated the crisis. Tunisia and the arab spring overview students begin this lesson by discussing the concept of freedom and the attributes of countries that embrace or deny freedom. Feb 05, 2019 tunisians overthrowing a dictator peacefully. There was a definite demonstration effect driving the arab spring, evident from the speed with. Nevertheless, in the last decade almost all of the mena economies. As economic distress is show to be one of the major causes of the arab spring, political dissatisfaction may be the biggest of them all to cause these disturbances. For decades, arab populations had faced repression of free speech, human rights abuses, economic mismanagement, corruption and stifling of political dissent.
It is clear that the protests as a whole were not ideological, in that they did not seek to impose a particular set of beliefs or order. Aside from reflecting the causes standing in the way of the desired outcome, cause andeffect diagrams can also be used to map out the necessary factors for achieving this desired outcome. They streamed across the venerable qasr alnil bridge, broke through security barriers as they raced through downtown streets, and marched in small clusters or long lines along the nile corniche from the southern and northern districts. Arab spring latest news, breaking stories and comment the. Effects and consequences of the arab spring the hollings. Cause and effect worksheets super teacher worksheets. The protesters were protesting about the brutal rule of. Beginning in tunisia in 2010, a wave of protests swept across the middle east and north africa, toppling entrenched leaders in some countries and leading to bloody, protracted. Protests that spread across the region in early 2011 started a longterm process of political and social transformation, marked in the initial stages primarily by political turbulence, economic difficulties, and even conflict.
Policy research notes represent the views of the authors and do. Friedman was cautiously optimistic about the future of the socalled arab spring. Unrest and uncertainty the big picture, the boston globes photoblog. Environmental pollution, types, causes, impact and. The arab spring was a wave of prodemocracy protests and uprisings that took place in the middle east and north africa in 2010 and 2011. Mar 22, 2012 khalid koser discusses the impact of the arab awakening on migration and displacement, and considers what lessons may be learned from the experience regarding international responses. Educational opportunities improved in some countries but not economic upward mobility.
Butcher summary the increase in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising grave concern among health care professionals, policy experts, childrens advocates, and parents. The geographic position of many arab states protagonist of the arab spring lead us to analyze also the international causes of these revolts. It challenged some of the regions most authoritarian regimes. It is known that due of the economic distress, and lack of employment, many turned to blame the governments in their countries. Unlike 911, the arab spring is attributable to deep and widespread sociological causes e. Compartmentalization of arab society into extreme rich and poor blocs has resulted in an uprising that is bringing an end to decades long regimes. What the arab spring means for sudan that have unified the bulk of world opinion against them, it seems inevitable that a tipping point will eventually be reached regarding sudan, when one too many atrocities are committed, followed by a unified call for change. Survey of the causes and consequences of the arab spring iemed. The arab spring s impact on the middle east has been profound, even if in many places its final outcome might not become clear for at least a generation.
Causes, effects and implications for pakistan and afghanistan syed hussain shaheed soherwordi and anum ikram in domino fashion, the arab world is in the grip of a series of revolutions. The arab spring united, for a brief time, both secularists and islamists, left wing groups and advocates of liberal economic reform, middle classes and the poor. The arab springs impact on the middle east has been profound, even if in many places its final outcome might not become clear for at least a generation. Cause and effect analysis, a powerful problem solving tool. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. This is due to unrest that has continued despite moving toward democracy more rapidly than expected after the arab. Pdf on the economic causes of the arab spring and its. However, the political and social impact of these popular uprisings remains significant today, years after many of them ended. The arab revolutions of 2011 have had deep local and global consequences. These demonstrations and protest efforts have all been critical of. Although the longterm effects of the arab spring have yet to be shown.
This is the case in the indian drylands of maharashtra, karnataka, rajasthan, and jhabua. What the arab spring means for sudan enough project. Luciani and others published on the economic causes of the arab spring and its possible developments find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab spring 43 egypt, where arab spring lasted longer, is one of the largest countries in africa with its advantages such as its location, tourism revenues and logistics moaddel, 2012. Atlantic council 3 issue brief aftermath o the arab spring in orth africa slipped somewhat below the average over the previous decade to 3. Oct 21, 2012 barack obama, the arab spring and a series of unforeseen events this article is more than 7 years old after promising muslims a new beginning in his cairo speech, the president put the us squarely. The arab spring reached yemen in february 2011 in the form of huge demonstrations. First, mainly drawing on empirical evidences rather than journalistic impressions and reports onthe arap spring, it aims to provide an indepth analysis of the sets of socioeconomic and sociopolitical. Floods also cause food prices to spike, depending on how fast the flood waters recede. Overview there has been much analysis of the causes and rapid spread of the 2011 arab spring or. The blame spiraled into riots against political leaders.
Arab springs harmful impact on health will be felt across. On january 25, 2011, thousands poured into tahrir square, the symbolic heart of cairo. We are witnessing today the emergence of new challenges and fracture lines. Preeclampsia pe is a pregnancyspecific syndrome and one of the leading causes of preterm birth, neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. There was general agreement among witnesses as to the longterm causes of the arab spring revolutions. The demands made by protestors were wide ranging, and also evolved as protest movements developed.1290 1087 422 925 1161 890 170 494 577 382 1286 461 875 1342 100 493 1401 930 1298 200 1437 1248 682 345 572 150 821 475 1315 246 970 253 430 356 556 1341 223 524 584 867 193 395 981 937 1335 65 819 83 83 516 1098