This in turn requires accurate, high resolution dating of oremineral bottom. The geology and tectonic settings of chinas mineral deposits. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit system article in journal of the geological society 1641. Olympic dam is a highly significant deposit containing the worlds fifth largest copper and third largest gold resource and is the worlds largest uranium deposit. To gain a full understanding of mineral deposit evolution, it is necessary to know more about the sequence of events and how long each lasts. Gold occurs in a wide range of deposit types and settings. Schematic diagram of how slab detachment and orogenic collapse can result in elevated temperatures in.
In order to understand and characterise the formation of southwest pacific mineral deposits, we must first reconstruct the complex geodynamic evolution of the region. Oct 30, 2012 the ore deposits of the mesozoic age in south china can be divided into three groups, each with different metal associations and spatial distributions and each related to major magmatic events. Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, also known as vms ore deposits, are a type of metal sulfide ore deposit, mainly copperzinc which are associated with and created by volcanicassociated hydrothermal events in submarine environments these deposits are also sometimes called volcanichosted massive sulfide vhms deposits. Jingwen mao, institute of mineral resources, chinese academy of geological sciences, beijing 37, china. These accumulations develop either as a result of the transport of oreforming elements. The distribution of deposit types whose settings are tied to plate margin processes e. These have now evolved to what is known as a genetic model, which includes theories on deposit formation as well as the physical properties of the mineral deposit. Mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast asia project summary, publication list, and web sites. Groves di, bierlein fp 2007 geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems. The characteristics, origins, and geodynamic settings of. Geodynamic settings of mineral plate tectonics igneous.
The deposit lies within a region of the eastern gawler craton known as the olympic cuau province, a metallogenic province of 600 km strike length figure 1. Elsevier tectonophysics 276 1997 290 tectonophysics geodynamic setting of the mineral deposits of the urals v. Physical mineral systems model key is defining a set of generic elements that represent important chemical processes but can also be related to rock volumes these rock volumes are by definition a subset of those in the physical mineral systems model four critical elements. It is superimposed on a middle riphean rift system with layered maficultramafic complexes with chromite and ilmenitetitanomagnetite and. Based on mineral assemblage, age, and spacetime distribution of these mineral systems, integrated with regional geological data and field observations, we suggest that the three magmaticmineralization episodes are the result of distinct geodynamic regimes.
Reconstruction of fragmented continents can provide a useful basis for. Mineral sands are the predominant type of titanium, zirconium, and thorium deposit. Request pdf geodynamic settings of mineral deposit system mineral deposits represent extraordinary metal concentrations that form by magmatic. Characterization of oreforming systems advances and challenges, characterization of oreforming systems from geological, geochemical and geophysical studies, k. New constraints on the genesis and geodynamic setting of the. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems journal. Geodynamic modelling of the century deposit, mt isa province, queensland citations. The geology and tectonic setting of chinas mineral deposits is a major accomplishment in that it brings together an extraordinary amount of material that has been published on these deposits in recent years. Thus, the size and grade of an ore deposit changes as the economic conditions change. New kinematic reconstructions show that while mineral systems in eastern png and the solomon. Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit wikipedia. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems nasaads. Reconstruction of fragmented continents can provide a useful basis for exploration of new mineral deposits.
Geodynamics and ore deposit evolution geode european. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast asia. Research into genetic models for mineralization systems has gradually evolved over time from purely depositbased models to more holistic models that view the mineralization processes in a hierarchical manner from geodynamic setting through provincethrough districtto depositscale. Characterization of oreforming systems advances and. The mineral systems approach was extended through the work of the predictive mineral discovery cooperative research centre to include five major questions that provide key information on the geodynamic and geological settings and other parameters associated with the genesis of the deposit. Mineral deposits form in particular tectonic settings which are governed by plate tectonics. Mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast asia project summary, publication list, and web sites introduction.
Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems david i. Despite a common inferred tectonic setting and broad similarities, these greenstone belts have a significantly different. Sazonov a a institute of geology and geochemistry of the urals branch of the russian academy of sciences, ekaterinburg, russia h institute of earth sciences, utrecht universio, p. Diagram showing the temporal distribution of deposit types ascribed to broad geodynamic settings in terms of. In so doing the complete plumbing system for mineralisation is considered with a view to specifying. It is difficult to avoid including magmatic ore systems in these discussions, because they and hydrothermal mineral deposits within the same tectonic setting may. Australia produces more than 22 mineral commodities from a wide variety of deposit types, but 90% of the value of mine production is obtained from just 10 commodities. The descriptive models are a more objective label, which describes the rocks and tectonic setting of the deposit. The present work aims to provide an update on the current state of knowledge on the different types of gold deposits models, geodynamics, their mode of formation and.
Mentoring program seg society of economic geologists. Classification of mineral deposits geology for investors. Geodynamic modelling of the century deposit, mt isa. Research into genetic models for mineralization systems has gradually evolved over time from purely deposit based models to more holistic models that view the mineralization processes in a hierarchical manner from geodynamic setting through provincethrough districtto deposit scale. The geology and tectonic settings of chinas mineral deposits franco pirajno auth.
There are now numerous studies on the geology of individual. These belts are related to four time spans metallogeny epochs corresponding to the cycles of geodynamic processes that led to the formation of the polyaccretionary orogenic. Mar 03, 2020 pdf 18556 k pdf plus 2141 k citing articles. Mineral deposits mineral systems and mineralising events.
As they require the conjunction of specific environmental conditions to form, particular mineral deposit types tend to occupy specific geodynamic niches. There are two main approaches to mineral deposit classification. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems journal of the. This in turn requires accurate, high resolution dating of ore mineral bottom. Jan 01, 2007 mineral deposits represent extraordinary metal concentrations that form by magmatic, magmatichydrothermal or hydrothermal processes in geodynamic environments typified by anomalously high thermal andor mechanical energy near plate boundaries. Seafloor tectonics and submarine hydrothermal systems. Pdf mineral deposits of north africa, mineral resource. The mineral systems concept has been further extended. The geology and tectonic settings of chinas mineral. New constraints on the genesis and geodynamic setting of.
As they require the conjunction of specific environmental conditions to form, particular mineral deposit types tend to occupy specific geodynamic. There are six distinct classes of gold deposits, each represented by metallogenic provinces, having 100s to tonne gold production. In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics typical rift features are a central linear downfaulted depression, called a graben, or more commonly a halfgraben with normal faulting and riftflank uplifts mainly on one side. Disparate tectonic settings for mineralisation in an active. Both production and resources are underpinned by a few major deposit classes and a small number of world. Then he must be thoroughly familiar with the many and varied species of earths. Ongoing seafloor exploration in other settings is providing clues to the diversity of mineral deposit types that occur in different environments and the conditions that are favorable for their formation.
The wulong lode gold deposit is located in the liaoning province, northeast part of north china craton. It is superimposed on a middle riphean rift system with layered maficultramafic complexes with chromite and ilmenitetitanomagnetite and subordinate ophiolite. Gold ore bodies are mainly hosted in the late jurassic granite and structurally controlled by. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in the definition, classification, characterization, thereby aiding understanding of the main gold deposit types. Email the mentoring program coordinator, james macdonald, with a brief description of your seg involvement, professional experience, and what would make you a good mentor. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems journal of. Mineral deposits are heterogeneously distributed in both space and. An ore deposit is a welldefined mineral deposit that has been tested and found to be of sufficient size, grade, and accessibility to be extracted i. Ore systems are closely linked to processes resulting from plate tectonics and global dynamics e. Takeaway messages mineral systems are complex dynamic systems exhibiting selforganised critical soc behaviour critical elements of mineral systems are whole lithosphere architecture, transient geodynamic triggers, fertility, and preservation of primary depositional zone in application of the mineral system concept in targeting, scale of. Mineral deposits represent extraordinary metal concentrations that form by magmatic, magmatichydrothermal or hydrothermal processes in geodynamic environments typified by anomalously high thermal andor mechanical energy near plate boundaries.
Geodynamic setting of the mineral deposits of the urals. Extensive descriptions of a wide range of key or worldclass mineral deposits of china are presented in the context of the countrys general geology, tectonic units and mineral systems and their geodynamic evolution within the tectonic framework of the asian. Major types and timespace distribution of mesozoic ore. New constraints on the genesis and geodynamic setting of the wulong gold deposit, liaodong peninsula, northeast china. A faultbounded unit within a terrane that exhibits similar, but not identical, geologic history relative to another fault. Geodynamic settings eastern continental china experienced collision between north china and south china cratons at 240220 ma ames et al. For magmatic nicupge sulfide systems, the following are considered. As noted in the introduction, the concentration of ore elements in a deposit arises. Most mineral deposit types are formed in geodynamic settings on the convergent margins fig. The anjiayingzi gold deposit, also known as the dashuiqing or jinchanshan gold deposit, is hosted by the jiguanzi quartz monzonite and located in the footwall of the kalaqin antiform figs. The olympic cuau province also hosts a range of other iron oxidecoppergold iocg deposits including prominent hill and carrapateena. Tectonic settings, geodynamics and temporal evolution of.
A total of 48 metallogenic belts including 450 mineral deposits of 70 model types were studied. Jun 15, 2016 takeaway messages mineral systems are complex dynamic systems exhibiting selforganised critical soc behaviour critical elements of mineral systems are whole lithosphere architecture, transient geodynamic triggers, fertility, and preservation of primary depositional zone in application of the mineral system concept in targeting, scale of. The iron oxide coppergold iocg group of deposits, initially defined following discovery of the giant olympic dam cuuau deposit, has progressively become tooembracing when associated deposits and potential end members or analogs are included. Groves centre for exploration targeting and tectonics special research centre, school of earth and geographical sciences, the university of western australia, crawley, w. As they require the conjunction of specific environmental conditions to form, particular mineral deposit types tend to. It considers the origin of deposits within the framework of large, lithospheric to depositscale processes in relation to source, transport and sinktrap for metals, and considers evidence of these processes at each step.
Request pdf geodynamic settings of mineral deposit system mineral deposits represent extraordinary metal concentrations that form by magmatic, magmatichydrothermal or hydrothermal processes. Diversity of gold deposits, geodynamics and conditions of. Definition and constraints of the interactions between mineral system components, including selforganised criticality hronsky, 2011, mccuaig and hronsky, 2014, and their implications for exploration targeting. The broader group includes several low ti iron oxideassociated deposits that include iron oxide prich, iron oxide f and reerich, fe or cuau.
The minerals which contain titanium are ilmenite, rutile, and leucoxene, zirconium is contained within zircon, and thorium is generally contained. Jul 29, 20 there are two main approaches to mineral deposit classification. Although most mineral deposit types can reliably be allocated to specic geodynamic settings based on mesozoic to recent examples where tectonic evolution of hosting terranes is well understood e. A robust understanding of the genetic controls on ore deposit formation means that deposits themselves can be sensitive indicators of geologic process e. Geological survey and collaborating resource agencies to provide a critical data base and companion geologic information on the mineral. Ore refers to industrial minerals as well as metals. Most major deposits lie in highly endowed metallogenic provinces and formed at discrete. New kinematic reconstructions show that while mineral systems in eastern png and the solomon islands are hosted within a single arc related to subduction at the new britain and san cristobal trenches, variable and discrete geodynamic settings exist within both the upper and lower plates throughout this region, which give rise to distinct. Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit system request pdf. Klaus gessner, tom blenkinsop, peter sorjonenward, 2018. The greenstone belts along the northern margin of the wawa subprovince of the superior province vermilion, shebandowan, winston lake, manitouwadge formed at ca. Iv characteristics of mineral deposits maria boni encyclopedia of life support systems eolss and seams in the rocks.
The emphasis of the study is a systems approach where the holistic mineralising system is considered rather than concentrating solely on the mineral deposit. This mineral systems concept was first formulated by wyborn. Application of mineral deposit concepts to geothermal exploration ian bogie1 and jim lawless1 1kingston morrison ltd. The geodynamic settings of iocg deposits have been widely debated williams et al. Multistage exhumation of the anjiayingzi gold deposit.
They are formed by accumulation of such heavy minerals within beach systems, and are a type of placer deposits. A mine, mineral deposit, prospect, or occurrence that is judged as important for the metallogenesis of a geographic region. Types, characteristics, and geodynamic settings of mesozoic. Better constraints on the geodynamic setting and crustal architecture of productive mineral systems in all mineral system groups. Geodynamic settings of mineral free download as pdf file. Pdf iron oxide coppergold iocg deposits through earth. The geology of the east kimberley is the result of di. A scaleintegrated exploration model for orogenic gold. Dominant is tholeiitic to transitional bimodal magmatism.169 135 390 932 1393 686 104 53 640 509 1359 175 963 378 564 552 455 812 1175 469 1226 1115 583 1171 643 691 269 1060 737 1445 194 922 1144 646 755 25 6 1250 201 48 1240 493 1174